SALALM Conference Attendance Scholarship Annual Report 2016 – 2017

The purpose of the SALALM conference attendance scholarship is to introduce library and information science students to our profession who have promising librarian or archivist futures focusing on Latin American or Iberian studies. Our goal is to welcome them into SALALM, give them the collegial and professional support that will help them find jobs in the profession, and help the SALALM membership continue to grow with new members.

In the last few years the committee, a Membership subcommittee, has made structural changes to the award, what it provides, how it is funded and the manner in which it is given. Originally begun as a twice-yearly scholarship for students to spend on their graduate degree, it is now a once-a-year award that covers up to $1500 the cost of attending the annual SALALM conference. The award is now funded at $7,500 per year with an additional $500 for publicity, permitting up to five awards of $1,500 depending upon the pool of applicants. At the University of Virginia Charlottesville conference last year, the SALALM executive board approved keeping left over funds in escrow to prepare for future iterations, especially those in which there is a larger pool of successful applicants or for years the conference may have a higher cost.

This year, we received 11 applicants for the scholarship and the committee was pleased to offer the scholarship to 4 of them, one of whom was not able to come in the end (he was encouraged to apply again next year).  The successful recipients are:

  • María Victoria Fernández, University of Texas
  • Mark Sandoval, University of Arizona
  • Itza Carbajal, University of Texas

We announced the scholarship winners on Facebook and via email in April, and have established an informal “buddy” system with the recipients, pairing them with subcommittee members via email in order to prepare them for the conference.  In order to save costs for the conference and the scholarship, awardees are asked to share a room with a fellow awardee or a SALALM member.  This is a great opportunity to network for the new members of SALALM.

Current Subcommittee members are Jill Baron (co-chair), Adrian Johnson (co-chair), Jade Madrid, Tim Thompson, Jana Krentz, Talía Guzmán-González and Lisa Gardinier.

Jill Baron and Adrian Johnson
May 16, 2017

Panel 1 – DÍScoLA: Developing Digital Scholar- ship Initiatives

DÍScoLA: Developing Digital Scholar- ship Initiatives

SALALM 61, Panel 1, May 11, 2016, 11:00am-12:30pm
Moderator:       Irene Munster, The Universities at Shady Grove
Rapporteur:      Lara Aase, University of Washington

Panelists: Alex Gil, Digital Scholarship Coordinator, Columbia University
Marisol Ramos, Subject Librarian for Latin American, Caribbean and Latina/o
Studies, University of Connecticut
Alison Hicks, Romance Languages, Literatures and Cultures Librarian, University
of Colorado Boulder
Melissa Gasparotto, Librarian for Latin American Studies, Spanish and
Portuguese, Rutgers University Libraries

Because of technical difficulties with recording equipment, unfortunately we are unable to provide reporting on the first two presentations, Alex Gil’s Where is Digital Humanities in Latin America and the Caribbean? and Marisol Ramos’ Damas y Señoritas: Visualizing Printing Presses and Editorial Offices of 19th Century Spanish Women’s Magazines in Spain and Puerto Rico. This report is a summary based on presenters’ slide presentations, drafts, and notes, and on wording from the HathiTrust websites. Many apologies for the error in recording.

Digital Scholarship as Researcher Practices

Alison Hicks presented on the concept of digital scholarship and the role of the librarian as scholar and facilitator of networked participation. She framed her discussion using questions, and she referred to recent research and publications to explore answers to those questions. For a preprint of Hicks’ chapter on this topic, including her bibliography, please see

Who or what is a digital scholar, when all scholars these days use technology in one way or another? To unpack this question, Hicks discussed both scholarship and digitality. Scholarship, according to Boyer in 1990, goes beyond just the generation of new knowledge to involve discovery, integration, application and teaching. Thus, modern (digital) scholarship is more than the adoption of new research methods, skill sets, tools, or technology; it necessitates new practices and habits in outreach, engagement, and education, as well as the willingness to grapple with ideas about the nature and purpose of scholarship, accountability, impact, and control. Similarly, digitality is more than just the use of new technologies to enhance research (making scholarship faster and more collaborative); it also embraces the value of openness, participation, and informal collaboration.

Digital scholarship goes beyond the activities listed by the American Council of Learned Societies Commission on Cyberinfrastructure for the Humanities & Social Sciences, which are the following:

  1. building a digital collection of information for further study and analysis,
  2. creating appropriate tools for collection building,
  3. creating appropriate tools for the analysis and study of collections,
  4. using digital collections and analytical tools to generate new intellectual products, and
  5. creating authoring tools for these new intellectual products, either in traditional form or in digital form.

Digital scholarship is not merely a new publishing model, for instance; it can in fact change the structure of scholarly norms. And the development of digital scholars cannot rely on a mere fixed set of functional digital literacy skills; instead, scholars will have to develop the ability to learn and teach continually in a dynamic, ever-changing environment. The new, decentralized medium, with different kinds of gatekeepers, is less exclusionary and may encourage more inclusive research and publicization. Such openness is key to digital scholarship. As Veletsianos and Kimmons pointed out in 2012, digital scholarship is enacted through three major forms: open access and open publishing; open education, including open educational resources and open teaching; and networked participation (e.g., a scholar who has uploaded a manuscript for feedback to to share ideas with broader audiences before formal publication; an educator using Twitter to engage in professional or social commentary with others in the field; a PhD student blogging on WordPress to discuss emerging ideas from her thesis).

What is the impact of these scholarly practices within traditional academic reward and promotion structures? It seems too soon to tell as yet, because although academics use new open, collaborative, and participatory technologies to build influence and reputation, academia does not currently have a way of measuring this impact and engagement. Traditionally, value has been measured by other academics (e.g., through peer review) in terms of exclusivity, knowledge scarcity, and economic productivity. Openness is therefore both a source of opportunity and a point of tension. What do these new developments mean for a digital scholar’s identity? Personal and professional identities and boundaries can be blurred through social networks and lead to a lack of privacy, where one’s academic identity may be “undermined” by networked participation and even online harassment, magnified by the long memory of archived online content.

What about the tools that we use for participatory scholarship? They are not neutral platforms from which we can engage in networked practices; instead, they can be seen as unstable, biased, privileged, and money-making platforms that may reinforce existing structures and social norms. Internet information “bubbles” can bring together like-minded individuals, and the personalizing algorithms of social media and even search engines can filter information and make it seem as if other points of view do not exist. Veletsianos and Kimmons warn that the ideals of educational justice assumed to drive networked participatory scholarship may not be intrinsic but in fact characteristics of early adopters.

What are librarian roles within these new landscapes? Librarians can do more than manage repositories or facilitate scholarly communication; they can also provide instruction in practices that are dynamic, flexible and subject to change. Here are four ways that librarians can contribute to digital scholarship.

  1. Re-center workshops around the practices of networked participation. Rather than focusing on demonstrating a tool, explore how the tool might fit into the researcher’s existing practices. At the University of Colorado Boulder, workshops have focused on workflow and software feature comparison rather than on technical features (e.g., comparing Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote, and Papers, rather than siphoning learners into learning one specific or institutionally mandated technology). Workshops start with a series of questions about attendee needs (research/study practices, disciplinary norms/constraints), then highlight how each tool could match participant needs rather than vice versa.
  2. Develop learner awareness and facility with new scholarly practices. Workshops should emphasize critical appraisal of the pitfalls as well as on the opportunities of digital technologies; for instance, UCB’s Creating a digital identity workshop questions the purpose and goals of an online identity and discusses the benefits and drawbacks of using commercial sites.The workshop on Improving your impact critically engages with the concepts of outreach, public discourse and measurement, uncovering assumptions, fears, and concerns about success in the academy, rather than just assuming that the use of different technology or metrics will automatically lead to greater representation or quality of opportunity within higher education.
  3. Create public digital scholarship discussion fora. Librarians at UCB have partnered with educational technology staff to create events, open to the entire campus, to discuss digital scholarship. In 2014, Academics Online week brought scholars and librarians together to exchange ideas about the nature of digital scholarship and its potential impact on their work, to test technology, and to raise awareness in an open conversation.
  4. Involve undergraduates.  Many universities now publish undergraduate theses and senior projects online through open access institutional repositories.The concept of networked participation can also lead to redesign of undergraduate research assignments, which tend to focus on a final essay or research project. Librarians can work with faculty to construct scaffolded assignments focusing on the intermediary steps that lead to a final paper (for example, by following a Twitter hashtag, or mapping a scholar’s informal online conversations), making questions of inquiry, as well as authority and evaluation, more visible to students.

HathiTrust for Latin American Studies Research: Building and Mining Thematic Collections

Melissa Gasparotto spoke about the collection-building features in the HathiTrust Digital Library and the textual analysis tools available in the HathiTrust Research Center. She described the specific ways in which Spanish-language content is treated by the HathiTrust algorithms.

HathiTrust Digital Library provides a familiar search experience for its catalog as well as the ability to search full-text in its digitized documents. Users can build, share, and search collections and export metadata. The search engine, Solr, however, can have trouble dealing with the HathiTrust index because it is so large–with more than 4 billion words–and because it is multi-language. Stop-words in one language may be keywords in another (e.g., lo, die, is), and Spanish-language corpora (lists of words to train algorithms) in particular are small and error-filled, so searches in Spanish are not as accurate as in English. Multilanguage searches impact IDF, or inverse document frequency, scores, the frequency with which a term appears in one document vis a vis the entire collection. Further, OCR (optical character recognition, the conversion of images to machine-encoded text) and tokenization (breaking up a stream of text into meaningful elements like words and phrases, which presents problems with contractions and hyphenated words) clutters up the index with junk “words.” That clutter negatively affects searching, ranking, and speed. HathiTrust is not yet searched enough for it to obtain much user data for algorithm improvements.

HathiTrust Research Center ( provides services for public domain texts only, but it supports a variety of functions. Currently the Research Center is only available to scholars from non-profit institutions of higher education. Using Workset Builder, researchers can run a set of prepared algorithms to extract names, dates, places, classify volumes, and chart on a timeline. Such algorithms are useful, work well with Zotero, are a good entry-point to the use of digitized texts, and facilitate digital humanities projects, but the algorithms work best on small collections, and results vary depending on the language of the books in the target workset.

The Research Center also supports functions called the Extracted Features Dataset and the Data Capsule. The Extracted Features Dataset is useful for linguistic analysis. Scholars can download a dataset of page-level information culled from a workset, including automatic language detection, token count, part of speech, and frequency, and then export only the information they need for their particular analysis. The Data Capsule is a secure virtual computer users can check out for a limited time for analytical access to the digitized public works of the HathiTrust. At the time of this presentation, access through the 15 extant Capsules was only to public-domain works, but access to digitized works in-copyright should be available as of the summer of 2017. Users can perform computational analysis within the secure Data Capsule environment and then export the results of their analysis, but they cannot export volume content, which allows for computational access to restricted texts without violating copyright law. The Data Capsule supports non-consumptive research (in which computational analysis is performed on one or more books) rather than research in which a scholar reads or displays a substantial amount of text to understand the intellectual content presented within the book. Non-consumptive analytics includes image analysis, text extraction, textual analysis and information extraction, linguistic analysis, automated translation, and indexing and search.

HathiTrust is a useful tool for digital humanists, providing access to a huge number of digitized texts and the ability to extract and manipulate data. In the future, SALALMistas can hope that HathiTrust’s search engine and Research Center will improve its algorithms and services for Spanish- and Portuguese-language speakers and scholars.

Panel 2 – Docu-menting Bibliographic Bias in Subject Headings: From Dartmouth College to the Library of Congress

Docu-menting Bibliographic Bias in Subject Headings: From Dartmouth College to the Library of Congress

Panel 2, May 11, 2016, 11:00am-12:30pm
Moderator: Ana Luhrs, Lafayette College
Rapporteur: Orchid Mazurkiewicz, Hispanic American Periodicals Index

Panelists: Jill Baron, Dartmouth College
Oscar Cornejo Jr., Dartmouth College
Tina Gross, St. Cloud State University
Claudia Anguiano, California State University, Fullerton

Jill and Oscar presented “Dropping the I-Word: Coalition-Based Student Activism and the Library.” Jill described the recent announcement from the Library of Congress (LC) that they would replace the subject heading “Aliens” and “Illegal aliens” with “Noncitizen” and “Unauthorized immigration.” The initiative for this change originated with a group of student activists at Dartmouth. Their original request for the removal of “Illegal aliens” as a heading was rejected but, thanks to the activism of Tina Gross, a resolution from the ALA led LC to reconsider and announce these changes. The response to this announcement from outside the library world has been both positive and negative and has come to represent much more than a change in a subject heading but, rather, larger issues around immigration and race in the United States.

A video, produced by Jill and two of her Dartmouth colleagues, about the student campaign to “Drop the I-Word” was played. Oscar, a student at Dartmouth, recounted the process from early meetings with Jill to the development of Dartmouth’s Freedom Budget which included a demand to drop the use of “Illegal aliens” from the library catalog. Jill described her eye-opening experience with a Latina student while using the catalog. The student’s reaction to seeing “Illegal aliens” helped her to realize that it wasn’t just an outdated and unfortunate term but had become something pejorative with the power to hurt; that it had become hate speech. The students and the library decided to work together to petition LC for a change in terminology. The proposal was rejected based on the use of the term “Aliens” in the US legal code. Nevertheless, the students continued their activism. Jill spoke of the need for librarians to be vigilant; that we have an obligation to know our users, to listen to their concerns, and to be disruptive when needed.

Tina Gross followed with the presentation “Please @librarycongress, Change the Dehumanizing Subject Heading “Illegal Aliens” #LCSH #DropTheIWord #NoHumanBeingIsIllegal.” Tina described the long history of criticism of problematic subject headings, including the influential work of Sanford Berman. When she heard of what was happening at Dartmouth she was thrilled that the students were so engaged but disappointed in LC’s denial of the petition. She noted that making changes to LC headings is not always as simple as making a SACO proposal; even well-researched SACO proposals are not always approved. Around the same time that the LC petition was rejected, she was appointed to the CaMMS Subject Analysis Committee. She raised the issue there and a working group was formed to investigate.

There was a turning point in the process after Tina tweeted about the question of the “Illegal aliens” subject heading during a 2015 LITA Forum keynote presentation by Mx A. Matienzo on the risk of problematic naming practices in cataloging carrying over into linked data. The response to the tweet was amazing and she realized that this was something people really cared about. She and various allies began a tweeting campaign leading up to the ALA Midwinter Meeting in January 2016. She submitted a resolution to ALA to urge LC to replace “Illegal aliens” with “Undocumented Immigrants.” Many people were involved in spreading the word and the resolution passed almost unanimously. LC quickly responded and agreed to replace “Illegal aliens” with the new terms noted above. This was followed almost immediately by congressional backlash with the proposed HR4926, the “Stopping Partisan Policy at the Library of Congress Act.” This act would force LC to retain the headings “Aliens” and “Illegal aliens.” Tina noted that the US code as a source for terminology can be problematic. Many terms now deemed inappropriate and/or offensive remain in the code. Up until the last few years, the terms “lunatics,” “Orientals,” and “Negro” were still in use in the code; legislation has recently been enacted to remove them from the US code. She concluded by noting that a core value of librarianship is serving all of our users with dignity and respect and we must recognize that this is a political act.

Claudia Anguiano presented her “Subject-Heading as Step towards Social Justice: Undocumented Student Activism and Racial Consciousness through Language Practices” via a pre-recorded presentation. While previously at Dartmouth, she was one of the faculty advisors for the Dartmouth Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality and DREAMers student group (CoFIRED). As a communications scholar her work with the students prompted questions for her about the relationship between co-curricular civic engagement, immigration activism, and linguistic change. She studies the rhetorical dimensions present in social movements and the way language is connected to social change. She noted that societal institutions are strengthened when young people turn their critical gaze upon these institutions and participate in efforts for change – which is exactly what CoFIRED did.

Racist nativism is still very present in the current immigration discourse and immigration remains contested in both the political and public spheres. We need to understand the ways that undocumented students resist these exclusionary structures; their attendance at elite institutions doesn’t shield them from inequity and exclusion within these institutions. Claudia described Critical Latino Communication Theory as a means to insert racial consciousness into our understanding of discourse in the public sphere (the media, legal institutions, educational institutions); to problematize the major forces of socialization and oppression that can be applied to the language we use to describe immigrants; and to understand the experiences and activism of these students.

She described how CoFIRED became a platform for activism and institutional change, built partnerships with different campus offices, and established a space where students could meet and share experiences. As a part of this process, they discussed the rhetorical power of the language being used to describe undocumented immigrants and how illegality becomes a powerful rationalization tool justifying harsh treatment and restrictive policies. With librarian guidance they put forward a proposal to change the subject heading “Illegal aliens,” a collaboration that became pivotal to the eventual success of the campaign to remove the heading. These student activists harnessed the power of language to make change and counteract anti-immigrant sentiment.

The presentations were followed by a brief question period. Barbara Tenenbaum (Library of Congress) noted that no-one had raised this issue with her (as a staff member within LC) during her many years of attendance at SALALM and that no-one had contacted her during the campaign. She stated that no-one within the division ever uses this term and, had she been contacted, she could have acted as an ally and advocate within LC. On the other hand, it is the library of congress and there are political issues that have to be dealt with; many political points have been scored at the expense of the library over the years.

Oscar thanked her for her support and her remarks. He noted that the student group worked for change within the system as they understood it. They followed the process—sending in the proposal—that they understood as the appropriate means for affecting change. Tina noted that she did contact the Hispanic Division during the process, although she’s not at liberty to say more about the conversation than that. Nevertheless, the point is not to vilify individuals within the Library of Congress and she recognizes that they have to maintain a delicate balance in their work. But those concerns aren’t the ones that people outside LC have to adopt. Our concerns are to advocate for our students.

Adán Griego (Stanford) acknowledged the courage of those who undertook this campaign and noted that it was probably better that the pressure be seen as coming from outside the Library of Congress rather than from within. He was surprised and excited by the speed at which LC responded to the ALA resolution.

Rafael Tarragó (University of Minnesota) noted that, besides the problematic nature of the term “Illegal aliens,” there was also a practical need to change the term as people generally didn’t understand the legalistic meaning of the term “aliens.”

Tim Thompson (Princeton) described this as a teachable moment and an illustration of the pervasiveness of whiteness in our institutions that blinds us to the presence of racist language within these institutions. This is an opportunity for SALALM to reflect on how we might take more of an activist and leadership role. He expressed hope that we can maintain this dialogue with students and asked whether there are other issues that we could work on. Oscar asked that we support the efforts of the Freedom University in Georgia ( Georgia is the only state that bans undocumented youth from qualifying for in-state tuition as well as from attending the top five state institutions – essentially a form of modern segregation. SALALM members could help get the word out about the student efforts to pressure the Board of Regents to end these bans.

Paloma Celis Carbajal (University of Wisconsin-Madison) noted that SALALM is writing a letter to the House Appropriations Committee to support LC’s actions. It will be presented at the Town Hall to be voted on by SALALM members and then taken to the Executive Board.

Panel 3 – Engaging Learners in a Digital Land- scape

Engaging Learners in a Digital Landscape

SALALM 61, Panel 3, May 11, 2016, 11:00am-12:30pm
Moderator:  Mary Jo Zeter, Michigan State University
Rapporteur:   Christine Hernández, Tulane University

Panelists: Sarah Aponte, CUNY Dominican Studies Institute Library
David Woken, University of Oregon
Gustavo Urbano Navarro, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral

Mary Jo Zeter convenes the panel at 11:02 am.  She welcomes the panelists and introduces the first speaker, Sarah Aponte, Chief Librarian at the Dominican Studies Institute Archives & Library, at the City College of New York.

Sarah Aponte begins her presentation titled, “Dominican-Related Digital Projects: The Spanish Paleography Digital Teaching and Learning Tool and First Blacks in the Americas Interactive Website,” with an explanation of the goals of the CUNY Dominican Studies Institute to develop digital projects focused on Dominicans as early Americans.

Her presentation will cover two projects.  The first concerns the development of the Spanish Paleography Tool is open source, interactive online digital platform designed to make Spanish colonial documents about Dominicans accessible to users who lack training in reading colonial texts and/or lack access to the original documents.  The tool is meant to democratize the study of historical materials by making the documents and their contents more readily accessible to people from all walks of life in both the classroom and the home.  The project began thanks to a Start UP grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities in 2011.  Anthony Stevens Acevedo, colonial historian and assistant director at the Dominican Studies Institute led the initiative that involved a team of librarians, archivists, scholars, and students.

The Spanish Paleography Tool currently contains 40 manuscripts dating to the 16th and early 17th centuries from Hispaniola held at by the Institute.  Collectively, they exemplify the scope of four scribal writing styles.  Some of the themes include royal letters, tax collecting accounts, powers of attorney, cargo manifests, and legal depositions, to name a few.  Additional links to digital image visuals documenting early Dominican history stored in a shared shelf commons in Artstor enhance the tool.  The paleography tool can be used to study Spanish in documents originating from any of the Spanish colonies.

The Institute hosted workshops in 2014 to train people in the use of the Spanish Paleography Tool.  Planning for future workshops is ongoing.  Sarah gives a brief demonstration of how the tool works on a sample text.

She then moved to discuss the second project aimed at building the First Blacks in the Americas portal website.  Featured on the website are images of original colonial manuscripts, transcriptions, translations, commentaries, maps, and photographs that document the arrival of the first generations of Africans and their descendants to inhabit Hispaniola. The Institute began this project with an exhibit 16th century Hispaniola: Glimpses of the First Blacks in the Early Colonial Americas featured in the New York Times.  The project is funded by grants from two sources:  the New York Council for the Humanities and the Office of Human Resources Management for Movement and Diversity, CUNY.

The bulk of the materials featured on the site come from the Portal de Archivos Espanoles (PARES) a database centered in Nueva Castilla, Spain created with the goal of increasing the dissemination of Spanish documents preserved in its network of regional archives and digitized for greater dissemination.  The goal of the website is to reveal the lives of the first Africans installed into the New World.  The materials create a window into the time and place of the first Africans in the America and the beginning of African-American history.  It is will also be a place to study the creation of Dominican identity.  The website is still a work in progress.  It will be fully bilingual in English and Spanish and is built to be interactive.

With this, Sarah finishes her presentation.

Sarah Aponte is followed by David Woken, Coordinator of the Library Instruction and the Librarian for Latin American Studies at the University of Oregon Library.  David discusses the Spanish Heritage Learners Program (SHL) in a presentation titled, “Heritage Learners in the U.S. Latino Archive: Challenging the Hegemony of the Pioneer Narrative in the Pacific Northwest.”  He begins his talk describing the goal of the program which is to bring people into archives and to employ archival documents for language instruction.  The primary source materials used for the Spanish Heritage Learners program come from an archive of Oregon Latino farm laborer movements that span four decades.  The goal of the program is to incorporate archival materials into Spanish language instruction.  The Spanish Heritage Learners Program in Oregon provides Spanish language courses to not only teach Spanish literacy to native Spanish speakers but also to integrate culture and history into their language education in a way that valorizes all forms of spoken Spanish found today in the United States.  The faculty members who participate in the program incorporate critical theory into curriculum with the goal of helping students understand their history as residents of Oregon.

David discusses a commonly told mythology of the western United States being conquered, pioneered, and built solely by a “white America.”  He reminds the audience that although Oregon was never traditionally part of Spanish America, it did sit on the northern border of New Spain and was first explored by Spanish explorers coming north from Mexico.  He then goes on to briefly discuss the history of Latinos in Oregon.  Latino history in Oregon begins with their arrival to the state as members of discovery expeditions and muleteers coming from California.  In the 1920s and 1930s, they came as migrant farm workers cycling up from New Mexico, Texas, and California following the seasonal round of harvests.  Between 1942 and 1947, the Brasero program brought large numbers of Latinos to Oregon where they established immigrant communities or colonias that served to support and maintain a constant influx of immigrants to the region.  Thus, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in present day Oregon is Latino.  Many of the most recent Latino immigrants moving into Oregon are from Mexico, including growing numbers of indigenous peoples from Mexico.  The result of this migration is that many Latino residents in Oregon do not feel like a part of the collective memory and history of the state.  Oregon has a very strong, overt anti-immigrant sentiment.

David goes on to describe the perspective of the founder of the Spanish Heritage Learners Program, linguist, Dr. Claudia Holguin Mendoza.  Her goal for the program is to valorize the “Spanglish” and other forms of spoken Spanish in North America.  Valorizing spoken language also politically empowers people.  A principal method used in the program is to have language students engage with multiple forms of text to help teach them code-switching.  Archives can provide samples of such texts that also have important historical content that engages students.

David then moves on to discuss the origin of the archive and materials used in the courses developed for the Spanish Heritage Learners Program.  The materials come from the archive of the rural workers union called PCUN or Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noreste.  The union and its archive came about from the work of early Chicano veterans and affiliates who provided legal services early on for rural Latino farm workers but expanded its mission in the 1980s to do active labor organizing.  The PCUN followed the UFW (United Farm Workers) model and those of other radical Chicano organizations like CASA to represent both native and undocumented farm workers.  After 1985, PCUN has helped to found other organizations for workers and to build strategic partnerships with other civil rights movements.  The union archive contains a diverse range of materials documenting this late 20th century history.

David explains that archival materials are used in three different kinds of class sessions:

1)      Language classes
2)      As primary sources in a variety of history classes
3)      To teach archival practices

Primary source materials that David uses in class sessions include Spanish language newspapers, posters, correspondence, reports, artifacts, photographs, and comic books.  To prepare, students are given select readings about Latino history in Oregon.  In class, they work in groups around a specific item and given typical primary source critical thinking questions to answer.  Activities also include asking students to think about the physicality of items, to think about the social context of items, and to find connections to larger historically significant events or personages.  David also mentions that sometimes relations with people from other ethnic groups in the state arise from the discussions of archival materials and that photographs often help students discover connections to their own personal history.  This leads David to discuss how he and other librarians continue to learn more about the archive from students.

David concludes by describing future goals for the archive and the Spanish Heritage Learners Program which will include digitizing archival materials and creating class sessions geared for use in high schools and venues outside of the Eugene campus.

Gustavo Urbano Navarro, 2016 ENLACE recipient and Director of the Archivo Historico de la Patagonia Austral of the Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Unidad Academica San Julian in Santa Cruz, Argentina gave the final presentation titled, “Fomento  de la resilencia comunitaria por la construcción del Archivo Memorias de la Patagonia Austral:  Evaluación preliminaria mediante de un taller de diálogo.”

Gustavo begins his presentation with a brief history of the development of the Patagonian region via oil exploration and mining and local resistance to these industries.  Populating of southern Patagonia began in the early 20th century with Spanish, Croat, English, and Danish immigrants.  A second wave of immigration of laborers related to the oil industry came from neighboring countries like Paraguay, Bolivia, and Uruguay.  The latest large influx of people began in the late 1950s in association with mining and most recently with the construction of hydroelectric dams.  These waves of immigration have also brought with them social conflicts, strikes, and demonstrations.  The historical documentation of Patagonia’s development is held in small regional archives that are challenged to process and preserve their holdings.

Gustavo describes the mission of the University’s project which is to find a way to assist financially the personnel at these archives to process, preserve, and make this material more accessible.  Three bodies contributed to a project, the University at Santa Cruz, UNESCO, and the International Association for the Preservation of Sound.  UNESCO gave $19,000 grant to buy equipment and to hire and train personnel to process and digitize these materials.  Open Access software was developed as well through cooperative work with experts at a university in the United States.

To date, the project has been very successful culminating with the creation of a website called, “Memorias de la Patagonia Austral.”  Members of the project have taken advantage of regional events like book fairs and local festivals to promote the project and provide workshops and crowdsourcing opportunities to the public.  They also encourage individuals to preserve and make available their personal holdings with instruction on digitizing and posting images on the Internet.  The Memorias de Patagonia Austral continues its work though it is severely limited by the small annual budgets provided public universities in Argentina.

Gustavo concludes by mentioning some of the more recent project activities.  One of which involves entering into formal agreements with local high schools in southern Patagonia to introduce the archives and their materials to students through organized workshops focused on specific themes within the larger history of Patagonia.  Another recent activity is to use Netline software developed at the University of Virginia’s digital lab to connect historical maps to modern ones and create accompanying timelines for the website.

Question & Answer period

Daniel Mateo Schoorl, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI) puts the first question to David Woken.  He asks about teaching students about searching practice using terms in Spanglish.  David responds that the Oregon faculty members in the SHL program deal mostly with the details of teaching Spanglish while he focuses on providing the primary sources that contain examples of Spanglish and teaching students how to work with archival materials.

Peter Johnson, SALALM Treasurer asks that the entire panel reflect on how oral histories could be used in their respective projects to earn the confidence of community members to contribute more oral histories.

Gustavo Urbano Navarro responds that there is a give and take between users and the oil and mining companies that finance and hire people in the community.  Peter asks if there is a fear of retribution by these companies if community residents give interviews.  Gustavo answers that there is no fear.  Peter asks about the impact if any of Chinese-owned companies.  Gustavo answers that there is no impact.

David Woken responds to Peter Johnson’s question about oral histories.  He says that different faculty members at the Latino Roots institution teach a methods course on film documentary, oral history, and ethnography methods class and new data collected and produced through this course is deposited in the University of Oregon’s digital repository and this material contains Brasero oral histories.  PCUN oral histories collected apart from the SHL program were deposited at the University of Texas.

Gustavo Urbano Navarro responds that the Braseros are like the miners in southern Patagonia.

Sarah Aponte responds that the Dominican Studies Institute is in the process of collecting oral histories.

Donna Canevari de Paredes, University of Saskatchewan Library asks Sarah Aponte if the paleography tool is open access and what does she think about the future of expanding the website.  Sarah thanks her for the question and responds that she would like to see the paleography tool expanded to work for documents from other countries and to expand the website.

George Apodaca, University of Delaware Library asks Sarah Aponte if the software used to develop the paleography tool software was developed “in-house.”  Sara responds that the Institute received a grant of $50,000 to fund the development of the software platform.  George asks if the Institute hosts the website.  Sarah responds yes, the Institute hosts the website and receives help from CUNY technicians.

Nelson Santana, Rutgers University thanks the panelists for their presentations.  He comments on the paleography tool and questions about just how long it takes for an untrained person to learn to use the tool in order to schedule time to train on it.

Nelson Santana then asks David Woken if perhaps he could take his history about Latinos in Oregon and publish it as an article.  David responds that he has a busy schedule.  He notes that the history of Latinos in Oregon should be of the larger history of the state.  David admits that he prefers to make information available to scholars who could better tell Oregon’s history.

Lorry Bridges comments that people in Oregon are ignorant of their own history.  David Woken agrees and expounds on this point.

Sarah Aponte, Dominican Studies Institute responds to Nelson Santana’s earlier question that lay people can begin to learn paleography using the online tool with as little as one hour a day.

Peter Johnson, SALALM Treasurer, asks Sarah Aponte about the paleography tool if there is available information about the distinct scribal hands and abbreviation conventions present.  Sarah responds yes.

George Apodaca, University of Delaware Library, asks Sarah Aponte if the workshop sponsored by the Dominican Studies Institute offers training in paleography.  Sarah responds yes.

Peter Johnson, SALALM Treasurer, asks both David Woken and Gustavo Urbano Navarro about the impact of the Church and religious ideology on their work.

David Woken responds that he needs to explore this question more with the community he works with as religion can be a complicated issue.

Gustavo Urbano Navarro responds to Peter that migration to southern Patagonia was accompanied by the Jesuits.  His project is currently digitizing and processing unique materials from Jesuit colleges.

Mary Jo Zeter concludes the session at 12:30 pm.

Panel 4 – Mapping Knowledge in Shifting Geographies


SALALM 61, Panel 4, May 11, 2016, 2:00 p.m. – 3:30 p.m.
Moderator: Donna A. Canevari de Paredes, University of Saskatchewan
Rapporteur: Michael Scott, Georgetown University

Patricia Figueroa, Iberian and Latin American Collections, Brown University;

Taylor Leigh, PhD candidate, Hispanic Studies, Brown University, MA candidate, MLIS, University of Rhode Island, “Voices from La Movida: Indexing Spain’s Underground Magazines from the Transition Period

Patricia thought this was a good project for various reasons. She grew up in Madrid so it had a personal aspect to it for her,  it was also scholarly since this is a heavily studied period of recent Spanish history. She also wanted to work on it for a short amount of time, two years, so at least this preliminary stage could be completed.

It’s easy to think these magazines are frivolous, but they are documents of a time of renewed sense of freedom, in a particular Spanish way. The Transition period is not easy to pinpoint, but it was essentially from the mid-1970s until 1982, when the socialist government came to power. The active cultural and social scene in Madrid became known as La Movida. It was influenced by the punk and New Wave movements in New York, London, and Berlin.

There is a lack of primary resources from this time period. At Brown, there are about 80 journal titles, possibly the largest collection in the world. Patricia continued by discussing how she planned which titles to index and not. She also decided to produce the project in Spanish. The primary users of the index will likely be native Spanish-speakers, so that should be sufficient.

Patricia then showed examples of several magazines. They presented problems like lacking page numbers, no index, topics, etc. Hard to decide what to index, like a survey about “What is our favorite joke?” Did not include ads. Features like photographs and illustrations unrelated to the text presented decision-making challenges.

Taylor took over to discuss the difficulty of a controlled vocabulary. With so many different kinds of things in these magazines, marginalia, illustrations, and so on, it was not easy to come up with a terminology to capture all of this. They found that looking at art magazines indexing provided a good basis. Names and even the articles themselves also provided challenges; names could be simply initials, or the articles often did not even have titles. For tagging, Taylor said that he preferred to err on the side of too many tags, rather than not enough.

Patricia said that the magazines are not being digitized because of copyright at the moment, but some have expressed interest. It is difficult because some authors or editors may not even be alive anymore, so copyright becomes very complex. She also talked about controversial social issues, such as racist content. The project is scheduled to end later this summer.

Alexia Helena de Araujo Shellard, Programa de Pós-Graduação História Social da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Susan Bach Books from Brazil

Bárbara modernidade – apropriação de terras indígenas na fronteira de Brasil e Bolívia (1867-1928)

In her presentation, Alexia discussed modernity projects (telegraph, water channels, etc.) in the late 19th and early 20th century and their use of indigenous labor, and how this reflected “civilized” attitudes about nature.  Indigenous peoples in Brazil essentially replaced slave labor, which was finally abolished in 1888.

For part of her research, Alexia used the archives of the American Victor Berthold, who wrote a history of the telegraph and telephone in Brazil. A map from 1865 showed that the border with Bolivia still not totally defined, which was how the indigenous peoples saw it, and a few decades later, maps from the Comissão Rondon distinguish the two countries quite clearly, after it had been “civilized.” Alexia then showed photographs of indigenous peoples involved in the construction of the telegraph system at this time.

Other projects in the region included building channels and railways, both built with

built by indigenous peoples. These projects transformed the landscape, which went against the indigenous worldview of humankind’s relationship with nature. “Cultured” people said that a controlled landscape (through these projects) is the ideal one, since they reflect the goals of society. Later the construction companies brought in people from all over the world, not only as a source of cheap labor, but also reflecting cosmopolitan ideals of placing Brazil on the international stage. Indigenous people began to wear clothes, go to school, and join “civilization.”

Gonzalo Hernández Baptista, Lecturer, Dept. Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, University of Virginia, “El beneficio de las antologías en un contexto global de aprendizaje y estudio

Gonzalo presented on anthologies as a literary form, and how in recent years they have become the vanguard in world literature. Gonzalo’s research field focuses on transatlantic cultural exchanges between Iberia and Latin America, and “supranacional” anthologies have been a part of this in recent years. Traditionally, anthologies have principally been a means of presenting the literary canon, but now it is often a way to present new or non-canonical literatures. These anthologies fill in the ideological gaps that traditional anthologies have created.

Much of Gonzalo’s talk was about different recent anthologies. Examples included a Afro-Latin American drama anthology, anthologies of women’s writing, Granta’s anthologies of international writing, travel writing, literature about film, Israeli/Palestinian literature translated in Spanish, and an anthology of LGBT literature from Puerto Rico.

These anthologies are not only a an easy and compact way of reading new authors or variety of genres, but also a way of making genuine cultural connections that would been much more difficult to do otherwise.


Donna Canevari, U of Saskatchewan, for Patricia: Why use Excel?

Patricia: Not most complex system, but it can  be easily shared, especially since she and Taylor were often working in different locations. Simplicity was key.

Martha Mantilla, Pittsburgh: Will the database be available to all? Will articles be available via Interlibrary Loan?

Patricia: Yes, should be able to request loan. Patricia used HAPI as a model to approach how to work with the database for her project; its simplicity will make her database easy to use.

Comment from someone at UVA about how excellent Alexia’s project is.

Donna Canevari, for Gonzalo: How did you get into this topic?

Gonzalo: When you read these, you get multiple perspectives of

Patricia Figueroa, for Alexia: Brown has the papers of George Earl Church, who was an engineer and explorer in Latin America during the 19th century.

Alexia: I try to use these primary source archives in my research, not other Brazilian historians as much. Novels and visual materials also provide more depth and context.

Fernando Acosta-Rodríguez (I’m pretty sure), to Patricia: Will you broaden the geographic focus from Madrid to other Spanish cities?

Patricia: I want to, but I would like to finish it. I would like to collaborate with other institutions or individuals, it’s too hard to do for one or two individuals. Timeline is key.

Patricia, to Gonzalo: Anthologies, one of the formats of literature to get access to a wide variety of authors. It’s also a good way to discover new authors for collection development.

Gonzado Agreed, it’s.good way to be exposed to a diverse group of writers.


Panel 5 – Charting New Waters: Rethinking Our Organizational Identities and Functions

Charting New Waters: Rethinking Our Organizational Identities and Functions

SALALM 61, Panel 5, May 11, 2016, 2:00pm- 3:30pm
Moderator: Cate Kellett, Yale Law School
Rapporteur: David Woken, University of Oregon

Sean Knowlton (Tulane University) and Socrates Silva (Columbia University and Cornell University) “Building Collective Capacity: 2CUL as a Case Study”:

Socrates: This from a chapter they co-wrote for the book Collecting Latin America, would like our feedback as the chapter goes through the editing process. In May 2012 Columbia University Library and Cornell University Library (both are “CUL,” and so are referred to as 2CUL) decided to pool resources in a shared Latin American and Iberian Studies position based at Columbia. Sean was the first, and Socrates was the second. The goal was to reduce duplication in low-use Latin American Studies materials and to increase depth and breadth of global scholarly resources. This presentation provides the background, the means of collaboration established, the assessment Sean did, and address the challenges of doing liaison work at two institutions. The position grew out of “post-recession efficiencies” where hundreds of people at Cornell (including David Block) shepherded into early retirement. The 2CUL MOU has a librarian employed physically at Columbia and liaising at Cornell (only there maybe once/year). Collections share common missions and a collaborative process (something of a radical version of resource sharing). Though the two different budget lines are managed very differently at different institutions, the money saved by avoiding duplication have allowed funds to go to new initiatives including graphic novel approval plans, Catalan monographs, Portuguese monographs, non-Hispanic Caribbean materials, and funds for the Borrow Direct cooperative collection development agreement for Brazil. Some duplication still occurs (major print and digital reference works, U.S. and British university press publications, established authors, requests for duplicates from patrons (both for good PR and because request shows a concrete need from patrons), and e-resources (because of restrictions on borrowing among institutions)).

Sean: The 2CUL collection development agreement combines two distinct research collections. The 2CUL collects from 21 Latin American countries (including Puerto Rico). Columbia is strong in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, Central America, the Southern Cone, and Spain, while Cornell’s strength is the Andes (principally Peru and Bolivia). Both collections invest in Mexico and Brazil and are strong on the social sciences. Columbia has invested more in fine arts and architecture, while Cornell has a strong interest in labor issues. Both are strong on economic development, history, literature, science, and anthropology. The 2CUL collaboration relies on firm orders and approval plans, with the vast majority coming from detailed APs with about 15 vendors. The 2CUL collaboration meant they had to harmonize and sign up vendors to work with de-duplication and refocus collection specialties, identifying how to reduce duplication (no more than 10%) and address specialties. Sean looked at the ten years prior to 2CUL formation to understand recent patterns, initially with Cornell’s Colombia collections and realized that it was too time-intensive to do with every country. Therefore they turned to working with WorldCat’s expert search feature through FirstSearch (despite drawbacks to WorldCat like new titles not necessarily appearing and time it takes for materials to arrive). Sean then displayed a chart showing duplication in the collections of materials from Latin America published in 2000-2011. They found that on average 39% of titles in the seven top collected countries are duplicated. In Mexico they found that Columbia and Cornell duplicated 36% of their collections, while 46% of imprints were held in common, which amounted to about $20,000 per year in expenditures on duplicate collections. Overall the countries with the highest rates of duplication were Venezuela (54%), Uruguay (50%), Brazil, Chile (40%), and Mexico. Duplication dropped drastically 2012-2015 (the first three years of 2CUL). Brazil went from 46% to 3% duplication, and all savings were reinvested into building a richer and more diverse Brazil collection. Mexican duplications fell from 36% to 11%. On average duplication fell 24%, with only 12% of materials published 2012-2015 duplicated. Budgets stayed the same so they get more with the same money. In the Andean countries they saw that Cornell has significant distinct collections in Peru and Bolivia, but still overlapped by 36%. With 2CUL they saw a 50% reduction in duplicate Andean titles.  The reallocation of resources has increased “bibliodiversity” at both institutions and allowed resources to be dedicated to new collecting areas.

Socrates: Their chapter focuses on collection development questions but they recognize that people have other questions about reference, liaison interactions, instruction, and other duties of research librarians. The 2CUL librarian at Columbia visits Cornell a couple of times a year for a two nights each time. They schedule as many faculty office visits as possible and organize meetings with Latin American Studies faculty. They must also spend time with Cornell library staff as well so they know to refer advanced questions to 2CUL. 2CUL does not have benchmarks or ways to measure how this has effected liaison services at Cornell like they do with collection development, and no real qualitative ways to measure what this means. He finds that with the amount of work needed for collection development he has a hard time meeting “value added library liaison service” obligations for graduate students and faculty. Other additional projects (exhibits and curatorial projects, work on archival collections, etc., which require long-term project management) get lost in the shuffle when not on site. He does worry that excellent Andean collections at Cornell might be neglected without a liaison on campus. Increasingly e-books (not a huge concern in Latin American Studies quite yet) will require some work negotiating access contracts to borrow across institutions (2CUL designed for print, so far). Space planning is also a concern (ReCAP, shared storage with Princeton and New York Public Library is facing space limits). They might reach out to reduce duplication of low-use materials across an even larger set of institutions, which makes the work that much more complicated. It is still early to fully assess 2CUL’s long-term impacts, but it has greatly increased the diversity of materials that they have been acquiring.

Zoe Jarocki (San Diego State University) “Beyond Borders – Cross-Border Library Collaborations”:

This talk is about the Creando Enlaces conference in Southern California, and the broader conditions in San Diego and Baja California libraries. She hopes to get more SALALMistas to come (Adán Griego (Stanford) has participated before). Creando Enlaces is an IMLS-grant-funded conference that seeks to build links between librarians in Baja California and the U.S. It is fully bilingual (with simultaneous translation) and free to attend, with volunteer public librarians and some academic librarian organizing it (including many members of REFORMA). The U.S. participants are mostly public librarians, while the Mexican librarians are mostly academic. There is a long history in San Diego of cross-border collaboration (Foros Transfronterizos, sister library arrangements, and international exchanges) from which Creando Enlaces grew. The attendance is predominantly U.S. librarians, though a good number are from Mexico. They had a big jump in attendance in 2014 as the new downtown San Diego library opened and the conference followed the themes of “technology” and “early learning.” In 2015 they had a big boost because Creando Enlaces coincided with the national REFORMA conference in San Diego, so Creando Enlaces was more of a 1-day pre-conference around the theme of outreach to underserved communities. In 2016 they saw a big growth in Mexican attendance because one day was in the U.S. and one in Mexico, around the theme of collaboration and technology. The conference coincides with some support for viewing San Diego and Tijuana as one region in the Mayor’s Binational Collaboration, efforts to revamp the port of entry (the busiest border crossing in the world), and the development of the Cross Border Xpress privately run walking bridge across the border to the Tijuana airport. San Diego State University (SDSU) and Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) are collaborating (the SDSU Center for Latin American Studies has a program where students can take COLEF classes during the regular semester at normal tuition without needing to do a study abroad). They have gotten strong response to the conference which has helped to spawn binational projects including a One Book Sin Fronteras program  where San Diego’s one book program expanded to Tijuana as well, picking a book originally published in Spanish that had been translated to English to read in both cities. They are also working on other cultural programs between San Diego and Tijuana public libraries. The lessons learned are that they need time to build networks and do follow-up. Food helps to get people to respond, but is stressful to plan, useful to change things up and learn from experience, and to recognize that translation is expensive and complicated but invaluable for the many monolingual librarians who will be involved. They would like SALALMistas to come this year, which has the theme “Creating the Future, Archiving the Past.”

Jenny Lizarraga (CEO, Cinco Books) “Refugiados Invisibles – Niños centroamericanos. The Children in Crisis Project”:

Talking about the “Children in Crisis Project/Refugiados Invisibles,” a program sponsored by REFORMA. This presentation will cover who are the children, where they are from, why they are coming to the U.S., and a map of where they are coming in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. They received a $10,000 grant for this project at the 2015 American Library Association meeting in San Francisco, presented during REFORMA’s meeting. August 24, 2015 they visited the Rio Grande Valley (Brownsville specifically) to see child immigrants’ conditions first-hand. The Government Accountability Office said that 56,000 children were detained in 2013 and 2014, and another 26,000 arrived in 2014 and 2015. Since 2009 186,233 children under 18 have been held by U.S. authorities, and of these 10% are under 10 and 13% under 14, with at least 30% of them being girls, who are especially vulnerable to kidnapping, rape, and other forms of violence. They come from El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. Parents pay coyotes to bring them to the U.S. for a better life and to find asylum. These Central American countries are recognized to be among the most dangerous countries in the world. Children come seeking refugee status from gang violence. Some have families in the U.S., but those families often are undocumented and afraid to come pick up the kids at a shelter and often lack the funds to come pick the kids up, so the kids are in limbo at the shelters. Honduras’s murder rate of 90.4/100,000 people (highest in the world, double that of the next highest), El Salvador’s rate is 41.2/100,000 (4th highest), and Guatemala is the 5th highest (39.9/100,000). At least 18% of children arriving from Guatemala only speak Mayan languages (no English or Spanish). These children come in through Brownsville, passing through Matamoros (which is very dangerous). They know to turn themselves in to ICE because that is relatively safe, but ICE can only hold them 24-48 hours so they end up in shelters. They cross Mexico by various means, including “La Bestia” train, buses, cars, etc. All are dangerous. Coyotes (human traffickers) often abandon children short of the U.S. so they can pass through to the U.S., though if they turn 18 while in a shelter they will be treated as criminals and deported. Border patrol often release the children to Catholic charities. The project gives books to shelters, but the refugees often do not understand free libraries as a concept. When captured parents will be fitted with trackers until they go to court, and must prove are under a direct threat (which is often very difficult to prove) to receive asylum, otherwise they will be deported. Discuss images of Catholic Charity facilities, a REFORMA table of books. The ProBar organization of pro bono lawyers in south Texas helps refugee kids, but are not active throughout the whole country. Southwest Key Nueva Esperanza youth shelter in Brownsville, for 10-17 year-old kids, allows refugees to stay 1-2 months as they try to find a family (the organization is careful about this because human traffickers might try to defraud SW Key to kidnap kids). SW Key has programs across the U.S. We are now working to get grants for the REFORMA Children in Crisis Project, look for sponsors, donations, and to raise awareness (at the USBBY meeting in New York (2015), the Guadalajara FIL, USBBY-ALSC at midwinter, the Texas Library Association, SALALM, and at the ALA meeting in Orlando this year). They are looking for promotores to champion their cause in public. They will also create a “library card” of information for refugee student to distribute in public libraries in the refugees’ destination cities. They want a welcoming community, support from librarians, books for every child coming through the border, library cards for every refugee child, and a fair hearing for all of the kids. You can donate by googling the project or hitting the websites of REFORMA, the Children in Crisis Project, or USBBY.

Cate Kellett: Now we have time for questions from the audience.

Luisa Escobar Galo, CIRMA: ¿Ustedes han trabajado con los niños para hacer estudios etnográficos o recopilar datos sobre ellos porque es información muy importante pero no hay bibliografía? Jenny: Tenemos información de los niños pero no tenemos algo completo porque no hay nadie recopilando todo, entonces el título “Niños Invisibles.” Hay información sobre los refugiados de zonas de guerra más lejanas como en África pero no hay esta información sobre los refugiados de nuestros vecinos.

Adán Griego, Stanford: Este no es algo nuevo, hemos visto in los archivos otras olas de niños refugiados, encontré un reporte de los años 1992-1994 sobre niños refugiados. Podemos buscar lo que han hecho en el pasado por estos tipos de asuntos. Jenny: En el pasado los refugiados se fugieron de la guerra, ahora está a causa del crimen.

Ruby Gutierrez, HAPI/UCLA: On 2CUL, has there been feedback from faculty and graduate students at Cornell about service there? Sean: When I started folks were already accustomed to having no support since David Block’s retirement, when I held a meeting right after I started only one faculty member attended with a group of graduate students. They have a Spanish-speaking reference librarian who handles most questions, while intensive consultation with graduate students comes mostly via email. Socrates: I make efforts to email graduate student lists, did meet with an undergraduate the last time he was there who was from El Salvador and had brought up to librarians how he had no reference librarian who could help him with his thesis. This seems likely to be a perpetual problem, I hope colleagues at Cornell will refer students to me.

Ruby Gutierrez, HAPI/UCLA: For Zoe, at Creando you get public librarians from the San Diego area and academic librarians from Mexico (mostly Baja California) with themes for the conference, but these two types of libraries have different patrons and concerns, where do they meet and come together? Zoe: People speak from their point of view, so there is some cross-communication, which part of why I want more U.S. academic librarians there. Some exciting overlap occurs on questions of the one-book program, fostering literacy and a shared community of readers, and voicing shared ebook concerns. Adán Griego, Stanford: Having attended, there is some mix of different interests, but there are also lots of overlap on questions of outreach, advocacy, and fundraising. I have seen some of the LIS students there respond well because they never understood that Latin American studies librarianship is a thing. Zoe: We can learn a lot about active outreach from the public library world, and about defining and measuring outcomes in different ways by talking with public.

Laurie Bridges, Oregon State University: To Zoe, you mentioned sister library organizations, please write about that if you have done that because there is almost no lit on academic sister library programs.

Debra McKern, Library of Congress-Rio: To Socrates and Sean, have you thought of expanding 2CUL beyond the two schools? Socrates: It has expanded in many ways, getting MOUs and collaborative agreements with other Ivies, and have a project for collected e and print versions of titles.

Nelson Santana, Rutgers University: To Jenny, I appreciate your work because you are giving voice to the voiceless, I think of a research project at UCLA on incarceration, and wonder if we have official information/data on this phenomenon (especially on U.S. and Mexican collaboration), what sources we have to discuss or study this phenomenon.

Cate: One more question? [SILENCE] Okay, join me in thanking this panel.


Panel 8 – Collections of Matter: Material Dimensions of Collection Development

Collections of Matter: Material Dimensions of Collection Development

SALALM 61, Panel 8, May 11, 2016, 5:00pm-6:00pm
Moderator: Laura Shedenhelm, University of Georgia Libraries
Rapporteur: Daniel Schoorl, Hispanic American Periodicals Index

Panelists: Beatriz Haspo, Library of Congress
Cheryl Fox, Library of Congress
Peter Altekrüger, Ibero-American Institute
Elvia Arroyo-Ramírez, Princeton University

Beatriz Haspo, Collections Officer, Collections Access, Loan and Management Division, Library of Congress; and Cheryl Fox, LC Archives Specialist, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress The Carvalho Monteiro Collection: Finding Hidden Treasures at the Library of Congress

Beatriz Haspo: Provided some background on the Library of Congress and introduced the Carvalho Monteiro collection, acquired in 1927. The collection was the private library of António Augusto de Carvalho Monteiro, born in Rio de Janeiro (1848). Monteiro studied at the University of Coimbra, completing a law degree but also studying natural sciences and poetry. He spent time in Petropolis and collected butterflies while pursuing interests in biodiversity. The collection had no list of titles and most books were identified by stamps. It became a collections management project to identify the items from the Carvalho Monteiro collections from the general collection. Search and access protocols were put in place along with preservation efforts. There is now a finding aid and rehousing efforts are ongoing. An internship program established with BYU enabled interns to spend time processing images from the collection that are now accessible in a database.

Cheryl Fox: Discussed more of the details of the acquisitions of the Carvalho Monteiro collection, including the initial sale which was through Maurice L. Ettinghausen on behalf of Maggs Bros. Ltd. Archer Milton Huntington established the Hispanic Society of America in NYC and also funded the Hispanic division, as well as a subject specialist. Different people have written about the collection over the years and several works have been dedicated to Carvalho Monteiro, who died in 1920 in Portugal.

Peter Altekrüger, Library Director, Ibero-American Institute, Berlin Bandits, Gauchos and Songs: The ‘Biblioteca Criolla’, a History of Collecting and Research

Robert Lehmann-Nitsche (1872-1938) was a German scholar who spent his career in Argentina. He studied philosophy, natural sciences, and medicine before becoming a professor of anthropology at the Universidad de Buenos Aires. His main interest was in Argentine folklore and popular culture. He also researched indigenous languages and completed some of the first sound recordings in Argentina (242 phonograph cylinders) of indigenous peoples and gauchos. In 1930, Lehmann-Nitsche retired from academia and returned to Germany with his collection, which was originally loaned to the Ibero-American Institute and eventually acquired. The Biblioteca Criolla has been integrated into the IAI library. The collection has imprints and musical scores from 1880 to 1925 from Argentina and Uruguay, which are being digitized. Currently 3-4 scholars from Argentina are able to work with the collection at the Institute with grant funding from the German government. The website for the collection is in German, English, Spanish, and Portuguese.

Elvia Arroyo-Ramírez, Processing Archivist, Latin American Manuscript Collections, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Hacia el sur: La militancia poética y la poesía militante de Juan Gelman

The Juan Gelman collection consists of 20 boxes that had materials typical of the personal papers of an author but also 10 boxes that were labeled “Research.” The contents of these boxes were documents dedicated to human rights abuses that occurred in Argentina, including legal documents, testimonies, and other documents as relating to the disappearance of Gelman’s pregnant daughter-in-law María Claudia and his son Marcelo. The collection has many letters that Gelman sent in his efforts to recover the remains of his family members. There are also born digital materials (including DVD’s and CD-ROMS) that are being processed using a disk reader with a virus scanner. The legal efforts that the Gelman family pursued are well organized throughout the papers but how to provide access is a question that is rather sensitive due to privacy issues and the issue of the reunification of Gelman with his granddaughter Macarena before his death in 2014.

Panel 9 – The Influence of the Digital Age on Latin American and Caribbean Studies: Open Access and Primary Sources

The Influence of the Digital Age on Latin American and Caribbean Studies: Open Access and Primary Sources

SALALM 61, Panel 9, May 12, 2016, 2:00-3:30 pm
Moderator: Rafael Tarragó, University of Minnesota
Rapporteur:      Matthew J.K. Hill, Brigham Young University

Panelists:  Paula Covington, Latin American and Iberian Studies Bibliographer, Vanderbilt University
Lisa Cruces, Hispanic Collections Archivist, University of Houston
Anton Duplessis, Curator of Colonial Mexican Collection, Texas A&M University
Christine Hernández, Curator of Special Collection at the Latin American Library, Tulane U.

Rafael Tarragó welcomed the attendants and presented the first panelist, Paula Covington.

Paula Covington
Stimulating and Enhancing Scholarship by Digitizing Colombiana

The purpose of Covington’s presentation was to make people aware of Vanderbilt’s collections, especially collections of primary sources that have been placed online, and to answer the question posed in the panel description, “What is the impact of the digital collection that Vanderbilt is producing on scholarship?”

She discussed the role of digitalization in preservation and mentions the example of Vanderbilt historian Jane Lander’s digitization project of archives dealing with Africans and Afro-descendant communities in Cuba, Brazil, and Colombia.  In this case, documents that had been digitized had become illegible only five years after their digitization, highlighting how digitization can help to preserve endangered documents and archives.

Covington briefly talked about other Vanderbilt-owned sources, including the webpage “Ecclesiastical & Secular Sources for Slave Societies” (ESSSS), which has 500,000 images of documents on the topic of the African diaspora in the trans-Atlantic world; the Helguera Collection of Colombiana, which has a searchable database with full metadata and contextualized descriptions; and the papers of Afro-Colombian novelist Manuel Zapata Olivella.  Digitization has increased the worldwide availability of Zapata Olivella’s papers for research.  She discussed the idea of digital primary sources contributing to the creation of communities of researchers who share stories and scholarship on Zapata Olivella through digital projects, resulting in the production of edited volumes, conference panels, and other collaborative scholarly work.

Finally, she mentioned how these digital, online primary source collections have been used and are currently being used for teaching by professors at Vanderbilt.

Tarragó introduced the second speaker, Lisa Cruces.

Lisa Cruces
Sí, se puede/Yes, It Is Possible: Documenting Houston’s Latina/o Histories with the Help of Digital Tools

The purpose of Cruces’ presentation was to describe her experience documenting Houston’s Latin@ histories with the help of digital tools, demonstrating how digital tools have contributed to teaching, collection development, and raising funds for the archival collection.  Her needs and purposes in using digital tools were instruction, increased visibility, and donor relations.

Cruces noted that prior to the creation of her position in 2012, the archive was not engaging with relevant departments at her university.  She saw instruction as a potential vehicle to increase collection use and spread the word about its holdings.  Another major motivation in augmenting the archive’s digital presence was to increase the university’s visibility and help to support her university’s recently granted accreditation status.  Finally, by digitizing and utilizing the collections she was able to help donors see that the university’s collections were not merely being preserved but that they were being used and contributing to the university’s mission, which gave her leverage with donors.

Social media has also been a part of the archive’s campaign in the form of a collaborative blog, and it is also very inexpensive to create and maintain.  Cruces has also digitized full collections, three in their entirety, and one was in process at the time of the presentation.  She has curated exhibits, both physical and digital, as well as some hybrid exhibits, which have been used in instruction and research.  An important lesson learned from these exhibits was the need to be aware of the type of objects exhibited so that they maintain their integrity and context in a digital format.  She also mentioned the need to use an appropriate digital platform since her team experienced technical difficulties with the one they chose, Omeka.

Tarragó introduced the third speaker, Anton Duplessis.

Anton Duplessis
El Proyecto ‘Primeros Libros de las Américas’—International Collaborative Digitization for Access, Preservation and Scholarship

In this presentation, Duplessis described the “Primeros Libros de las Américas” project, which is an international collaborative effort aimed at the digitization of early printed books from New Spain (16th century) for the purposes of access, preservation, and scholarship.  The website,, was launched in 2010 and comprises material from 27 member institutions in Mexico, Chile, Peru, Spain, and the United States.  The project has digitized 136 of the 220 titles known to have been printed during the period and seeks as many exemplars as possible of the same title for comparison and completeness purposes.  Eventually Peruvian imprints will be included as well.  Part of the project was funded by an NEH grant, which helped to develop transcription tools.

Duplessis made note of the current condition of many of these books and the problems that they face (holes, water damage, binding, geographic location, potential natural disasters, etc.), as well as some of the repairs that have been carried out to preserve the materials (some of which are problematic), then discussed both the need for and the dilemmas associated with digital preservation of such materials.  Advantages include the opportunity to disseminate the information more widely and the possibility of digital repatriation, while problems include the cost of digitization and maintenance, appropriate technologies and digital preservation, and the nature of dissemination, including whether to use the open access model or go with a commercial vendor.

Duplessis emphasized the importance of collaboration and sharing (technology, standards, skills, etc.) among partner institutions, especially for some of the smaller institutions who do not have the funds, materials, skills, or personnel to carry out these large-scale digitization projects.  A major goal of the project is long-term preservation through digitization and dispersion, as partners are entitled to any and all files, with redundant copies spread among the participating institutions.  He described the technical aspects of the project (cataloging, metadata, etc.), as well as potential uses of the interface, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR) through the Ocular+ software, the possibility of viewing multiple copies simultaneously, and an example application of the webpage for linguistic studies.

Tarragó introduced the fourth speaker, Christine Hernández.

Christine Hernández
Digital Primary Sources at the Latin American Library, Tulane University

The focus of Hernández’s presentation was to discuss the digitization of primary sources taking place at Tulane’s Latin American Library since digitization began there in 2012 with the launch of the Tulane Digital Library (TUDL).  Projects up to the present have been prioritized by the criteria of accessibility and preservation, but recently a third criterion has been considered, complementarity with holdings of libraries in Latin America.

Hernández discussed the collaborative nature of recent digitization projects, mentioning such projects as the Nicaraguan Presidential Papers project carried out in cooperation with the Instituto de Historia de Nicaragua y de Centroamérica (IHNCA); and CALAP II, the Central American Libraries Archives Project, aiming at digitizing early photography, newspapers, and presidential papers.  These projects have the additional goal of creating a network of institutions capable of carrying out such projects and of creating standards of digitization with common metadata.  In this way these digitization projects are trying to bridge North and South by putting collections digitally online and accessible to anyone with computers and internet, and makes efficient use of scarce funding and personnel.

Following the panelists’ presentations, the Q&A portion began.


Adan Griego (Stanford U.) to Anton Duplessis:
Will the Primeros Libros project continue?
A.D. – It is continuing.
A.G. ‒ The Palafoxiana library is now online; to what extent are the local institutions in a position to do something with the files?
A.D. ‒ The Palafoxiana has suffered from a dearth of resources and is not in a position to take back files, although there are (tentative) plans for preservation and maintenance further on, but for the moment it is unable to do so due to material and financial constraints.

David Wilkin (U. of Oregon) to Lisa Cruces:
When using digital resources as a way to motivate donors, how do you explain the effort that goes behind digitizing primary sources so that they don’t have false expectations?
L.C. ‒ I am very honest with them about the expectations and possibilities of their donated materials and digitization.

Paula Covington: Referred to specific ways that donors and the university administration have financed/supported digitization projects.

Lara Aase (U. of Washington) to Paula & Anton:
Have you had any culturally sensitive material that has been digitized (Afro-Cuban religions, indigenous practices)?

P.C. ‒ So far nothing, but currently in midst of project of ethnographies & interviews, hoping it doesn’t lead to any problems.  There is also the example of Zapata Olivella’s correspondence with other people and how she had to get copyright for the senders of letters and the long process that entailed.

A.D. ‒ Not so many problems of culturally sensitive materials for Primeros Libros project, just that security is an issue for some of the institutions, therefore high publicity is an issue because items have been stolen in the past.

Donna Canevari (U. of Saskatchewan) to all panelists:

Requested that panelists speak about how they fund the projects.

P.C. ‒ For ESSSS funding from British Library Endangered Archive Program; from NEH; from ACLS; applied for another NEH grant this year; working through sustainability issues with the university.

L.C. ‒ U. of Houston has been investing heavily in digitization projects; university wants a lot of content, hungry to digitize; for other larger projects (such as a collection about Latin American oil), seeking for grants (NEH) and for money from donors.

Donna Canevari follow up:

Do donors ask for tax docs, tax breaks?

L.C. ‒ Yes, they do, and I am very willing to help them with that, and I am open and up front about those kinds of conversations, which helps the donation process along.

P.C. ‒ We also get money from NRC grants.

A.D. ‒ For Primeros Libros, received [grant] funding for the technical aspects (OCR), but the initial design and building of sites sponsored and carried out by participating libraries (A&M, U.T., LaFragua).  Big research libraries are using their money and personnel to carry out these projects as part of their institutional mission.  Bought a scanner and took it down to Puebla and other libraries in Mexico to digitize materials and train Latin American workers.

Daniel Arbino (U. of Arizona) to Paula & Anton:

Have you noticed an increase of online traffic from the respective countries using these collections?

P.C. ‒ Uptick in use from Brazil and Colombia; increased number of Colombian researchers coming to Vanderbilt to use non-digitized elements.  Mentions a commitment with the Colombian Ministry of Culture of making as many items available digitally as possible.  The online Zapata Olivella collection has increased research and scholarship on Zapata Olivella.

A.D. ‒ Has noticed increase through Google analytics, and an occasional “request to publish” form; has student employees go through and analyze citations to see who is using the material; not exhaustive searches.

End of panel

Panel 10 – Capturing Digital Transformations

Capturing Digital Transformations

SALALM 61, Panel 10, Thursday, May 12, 2016, 2:00pm-3:30pm
Moderator: Taylor Leigh
Rapporteur: Antonio Sotomayor

Barbara Alvarez: “Capturing Digital Butterflies or How to Build Research Collections of Contemporary Literature in the 21st Century.”

–          Reflection on capturing digital collection from the point of view of a subject librarian.
–          Explore the range of strategies to capture digital tools from Brazil. Review of types of e-literature: digital, electronic, cyber, transmedial, new media, and 2.0.
–          Within e-lit there are multiple types such as kinetic poetry, interactive fiction, etc. E.g. Isa Mestre “Amar em Circulo” an Interactive novel; Chico Marinho “Palavrador” a 3D experience that interacts with the reader; “A derrubadora do Sarria” a poetic epic that depicts the Brazilian soccer defeat in Barcelona through text, video, slides, music, etc.; cronopios.
–          Works on facebook, but hard to find later on. They are taken out. Difficult to capture.
–          One possible tool: New Media and Literary Initiatives in Africa. Web archiving. Once captured, hard to provide access to users.
–          Others: Electronic Poetry Center, Electronic Literature Organization, Electronic Literature Knowledge Base. However, difficult to apply to mass acquisition for large academic libraries.
–          Current tools for web archiving in relation to works out there not enough to preserve the material.
–          Point of crisis.
Ricarda Musser & Anna Weymann: “Making Objects Mobile: Digital Transformation and the New Chances for Research and Collection Management.”
–          The IAI Posada Collection: popular culture c. 1900. 107 Booklets and 434 single sheets.
–          Posada, illustrator of Mexican life. Inspiring to Diego Rivera. Famous or Calaveras, Dia de los Muertos.
–          Managed in two parts: booklets and single sheets.
–          Mobile Objects, cultural and natural objects.
–          Three sections: Political object mobility, object mobility, digital objects mobility.
–          Digital Objects at the Iberoamerican Institute.
–          First step to process the Posada collection, good cataloging using Goobi. Goobi, a tested tool that has proven successful.
–          Then, quality digitization with 600dpi images. Project lasted five months.
–          Good results: a variety of information. Helped to make institute more visible, leading to more collaboration.
–          UNAM/Moreia: virtual reconstruction of the archive of Antonio Venegas Arroyo.
–          Link to another project: Impresos populares mexicanos (1800-1917).
–          New ideas: Literature material.
–          They learned from the project: Librarian is no longer a collector, but works with projects to facilitate research and knowledge. Collaborate outside your institution.
–          Librarians work closely with researchers and demonstrate expertise as information specialist.
–          Embedded librarianship to engage with researchers, professors, and students.
–          To promote digital competencies, keep collaboration to continue learning.
Enrique Camacho Navarro: “Los Estudios Latinoamericanos en la UNAM y las Necesidades de colaboración.”
–          Colaboración entre investigador (historia) y bibliotecarios.
–          Proyectos visuales: mapas, fotografías, pinturas, postales.
–          Mapas: mucha información que refleja el contexto de la época. Intencionalidad de las imágenes. Cartografías de imperialismo, progreso, modernización.
–           Utiliza de ejemplo “Conquest of the Tropics” de Adams. La portada, la cual se pierde en las bibliotecas, nos dice mucho más del libro.
–          Estudia como América Latina es representada como tropical, naturaleza exagerada. Industria y progreso llega con los EEUU.
–          En Latinoamérica las postales no son consideradas como importantes para la investigación. Archivos latinoamericanos no guardan postales.
–          Importancia de que los bibliotecarios y archiveros cataloguen las imágenes para poder proveerle al investigador información vital para el análisis.  El procesar las imágenes en su totalidad al digitalizarlas es de suma importancia.
–          Presenta varias imágenes y explica el potencial para interpretación.


–          Luis González (Indiana) for Enrique Camacho Navarro: Que le sugeriría a los bibliotecarios sobre estas fuentes? Camacho: 1. tratar de preservar las portadas de los libros, porque tiene mucha información. 2. Ampliar los datos de información de imágenes, catalogación.
–          Ricarda Musser for Barbara Alvarez: Lots of questions about capturing e-literature. Offers collaboration as an alternative. Brabara: Lots of unpredictable behavior. Knowing the url is not enough. Special features of the work is not limited to the site, but to details.
–          Sotomayor (Illinois) for Ricarda Musser: Features of digital project?: OCR is good, but expensive. Single sheets, good metadata. Collaboration with UNAM = transcriptions of material.
–          Barbara Alvarez (Michigan) for Ricarda Musser: Crowdsourcing? Ricarda, yes. Working on the details, instructions, and applications. Distributed address to project for people to help process the material.

Panel 11 – Cataloging Our Values: Critical Approaches to Resource Description

Panel 11 – Cataloging Our Values: Critical Approaches to Resource Description

SALALM 61, Panel 11, May 12, 2016, 2:00-3:30pm
Moderator: Tim Thompson, Princeton University
Rapporteur: John B. Wright, Brigham Young University

Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa—“Who Deserves to Be Cataloged? Zines and the Privilege of Bibliographic Description”

Tina Gross, St. Cloud University; Cate Kellett, Yale Law School—“Conflicting Principles and Priorities: Challenging the Subject Heading ‘Illegal aliens’”

Sara Levinson, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill—“Subject Headings and Searchable Notes: How Catalogers Improve Access to Latin American Collections at UNC-Chapel Hill Libraries”

Laura Martin, University of Wisconsin-Madison—“Corrugated Board Chapbooks”: Challenges in Cartonera Subject Cataloging”

Lisa Gardinier discussed the zine collection at University of Iowa and how they have decided to catalog these materials.  They originally defined a zine as something that has a staple, but soon clarified by saying that it is a self-publication that generally has a small, self-distributed print run.  Zines are free of paid advertisements.  Authors of zines are motivated by a desire to share their knowledge to their communities.  UI has about 600 items that were collected in person in Mexico (2012, 2013), Argentina (2014), Chile (2014), and Colombia (2015) and some were received through donations from vendors.  Each item is cataloged separately with its own bibliographic record.  All items are housed as a manuscript collection in special collections in a single classification number in folders organized alphabetically by author.  While considering the best way to catalog these materials, the following functional priorities were considered: 1) description, 2) discovery, 3) access, and 4) preservation.  Some compromises resulting from their work: 1) less subject analysis, 2) group record for collection of 5-10 similar zines even if not part of series, 3) Zine Code of Ethics ( prefers minimal authority work (some of the authors intentionally write under pseudonyms to hide real identity).

Tina Gross and Cate Kellet discussed the movement of the SAC proposal to eliminate the use of Illegal aliens in LCSH.  Tina described her work getting a proposal through SAC that would try again to get the Library of Congress to consider discontinuing the use of Illegal aliens as a subject heading because of its pejorative nature.  Originally, a request by Dartmouth students working with a cataloger was made to LC in Sept. 2014 to discontinue the use of Illegal aliens.  In Feb. 2015, LC denied the request.  Tina considered this an opportunity to get involved in a worthy activist cause.  She asked if there was a way to appeal LC’s Feb. 2015 decision and was told that there was not.  She asked if SAC should take this up, and the group agreed that it should.  Tina originally only hoped that SAC would decide that Illegal aliens should not be used.  LC issued a decision paper in March 2016 with its decision to discontinue using the term Aliens as a subject heading.  Instead, they would use Noncitizens.  The LCSH Illegal aliens will be cancelled and replaced by two headings, Noncitizens and Unauthorized immigration.  Cate Kellet discussed the legal terminology of Title 8 of the U.S. Code.  Historically, terminology from Black’s Law Dictionary has been used.  She clarified that updates to LCSH are routine.  Using Undocumented immigrants as a replacement to Illegal aliens is not satisfactory because they are not the same thing.  A good clarification for LC’s decision can be found at:

Subsequently, Representative Diane Black from Tennessee has introduced a bill (H.R. 4926) Stopping Partisan Policy at the Library of Congress Act which, if passed, will disable LC from implementing subject heading changes explained in its March 2016 decision.  Instead, LC will be required to retain the LCSH Aliens and Illegal aliens as well as other headings that existed in 2015.  This issue is not yet resolved.

Sara Levinson spoke about procedures and policies for cataloging Cordel literature at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  They make these materials more accessible by using contents and summary notes.  They have decided to catalog these materials using collection-level cataloging.  They add content notes for conferences, etc.  These are added to help people gain more access.  They propose classification numbers and LCSH creates and updates through SACO.

Laura Martin works in the Catalog Dept. at UW-Madison and ¼ of her time is spent in Special Collections.  She has been involved in cataloging cartonera books for their Special collections.  Consequently, she proposed the creation of the LCSH Cartonera books, which was approved by SACO in 2015.  Please pay attention to general scope note added to this LCSH: “ǂi Here are entered works on books that are handmade from recycled cardboard by nonprofit publishing houses and distributed through non-standard methods.”  Cartonera books are created by non-profit, cooperative, democratic organizations.  They also include republication of well-known authors who have given permission to publish their materials for free.  Continued use of LCSH Chapbooks or Artist books need to be reevaluated.  Just because something is bound in cardboard does not make it a Cartonera book.


Claire-Lise Benaud (UNM)—When was term Illegal aliens used in US Code?  Kellet responded that it has been used for at least 100 years.  The term Aliens has been used since 1910.

Eudoxio Paredes (U. of Saskatchewan)—The subject heading Cartonera books is more a form heading than a subject heading.  Is it important use as a topic (650) or a form (655)?  Martin indicated that using it as both is important.

Paloma Celis-Carbajal (UW-Madison) –Researchers want these books (Cartonera books).  We needed specific LCSH for this kind of resource.

Cate Kellet clarified that the term Illegal aliens was coined in 1950 after being used in a court case.

Benaud (UNM) indicated that using Undocumented immigrants is not the same as Illegal aliens.

Tina Gross indicated that a term used to describe a group of people should not be offensive to that group and it is preferable to use a term used by a group to describe themselves.  Undocumented immigrants is certainly the most common form that is used by news sources, etc.

John B. Wright (BYU) discussed that a possible issue in this case of Illegal aliens is that the LCSH Illegal aliens began as a class of person.  However, now it is often used to describe an ethnic group and has now become a pejorative term.

Tim Thompson (Princeton) indicated that the term Immigrants implies that people are hoping to permanently reside in the new country.  This is not often the hope of those self-described as Undocumented immigrants.

Ellen Jaramillo (Yale)—Gardinier referred to the Zine Code of Ethics.  I’m unfamiliar with this.  Gardinier indicated that you can access this on the web at

Jaramillo asked if it were true that authors of zines do not want to be credited.  Gardinier responded, Yes, some do not.  As catalogers we need to consider how detailed we will be in doing authority work for these authors.  The Code of Ethics indicate that we should spent minimal amount of time to do this authority work.